Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran

2 Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

4 Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Purpose: The aim of this study was to formulate a new delivery system by the incorporation of Zataria multiflora. essential oil into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Research Method: SLN formulations were prepared following the high-pressure homogenization after starring and ultra-trax homogneization techniques. In this experiment, three SLNs formulations were prepared using three types of lipids. Lipids included glycerol monostearate lipid, precirol and stearic acid lipid. The SLNs were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetery (DSC), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and particle size analysis. Findings: The results showed that particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of the above formulations were about 255, 220, 486 nm, 0.369, 0.251, 0.296,-37.8, -17.6 -27.2 mV respectively. The results obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that in all 3 formulations, particle size less than 200 nm were spherical. Thermal analysis by DSC, confirmed the presence of solid particles in the prepared SLNs. Also, the essential oil encapsulation percentage of Formulations 1, 2 and 3 were 85.3, 91.3 and 95.2% respectively. Stability studies of particle size and zeta in four months revealed that SLNs containing essential oils had relatively good stability. Research limitations: Limitations of SLNs are: Lipid particle growth, Unpredictable gelation tendency. Originality/Value: Due to the chemical structures of essential oils, EOs can be easily degraded after exposure to humidity, heat, oxygen, light, owing to chemical and enzymatic reactions. To overcome the drawbacks of EOs, several researchers have suggested the encapsulation of these active ingredients into nanocarriers. The results of the present research revealed that SLNs composed of glycerin monostearate lipids, precirol and stearic acid, were good carriers for Z. multiflora essential oil.


Main Subjects

Avaei, A., Mohamadi Sani, A., & Mahmoodzadeh Vaziri, B. (2015). Chemical composition and antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multifloraBoiss endemic in Khorasan-Iran.AsianPacific. Journal of Tropical Disease, 5(3), 181-185.

Bacchella, R., Testoni, A., & Lo Scalzo, A. (2009). Influence of genetic and environmental factors on chemical profile and antioxidant potential of 84 commercial Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne). Electronical Journal of environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 8(4), 230-242.

Bunjes, H. (2005). Characterization of solid lipid nano- and microparticles. in: lipospheres in drug targets and delivery. Edited by Nastruzzi C, pp: 41-66. Florida: CRC press.

Burt, S. 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94, 223-253.

Domb, A.J. (1993). Lipospheres for controlled delivery of substances. In: microencapsulation: methods and industrial applications. Ed. Benita, S. 2th ed, 158, pp.188-836. USA: CRC Press.

Donsi, F., Annunziata, M., Sessa, M., & Ferrari, G. (2011). Nanoencapsulation of essential oils to enhance their antimicrobial activity in foods. Food Science and Technology, 1908-1914.

Ekambaram, P., Abdul Hasan Sathali, A., & Priyanka, K. (2011). Solid lipid nanoparticles: a review. Scientific Reviews & Chemical Communications Journal, 2(1):80-102.

Es’haghi Gorjim M., Noori, N., Nabizadeh Nodehi, R., Jahed Khaniki, G., Noushin Rastkari & Alimohammadi, M. (2014). The evaluation of Zataria multiflora boiss. essential oil effect on biogenic amines formation and microbiological profile in Gouda cheese. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 59, 621-630.

Fathi, M., Mozafari, M. R., & Mohebbi, M. (2012).  Nanoencapsulation of food ingredients using lipid based delivery systems. Trends Food Science & Technology. 23, 13-27.      

Golmohammadzadeh, S., Mokhtari, M., & Jaafari, M. R. (2012). Preparation, characterization and evaluation of moisturizing and UV protecting effects of topical solid lipid nanoparticles. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 48(4), 683-690.
Jores, K., Mehnerta, W., Drechslerb, M., Bunjesc, H., Johannd, C. & Mäder, K. (2004). Investigations on the structure of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by photon correlation spectroscopy, field-flow fractionation and transmission electron microscopy. Journal of Controlled Release, 9, 217-227.
Lai, F., Wissing, S. A., Müller, R. H., & Fadda, A. M. (2006). Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for potential agricultural application: preparation and characterization. Aaps Pharmscitech, 7(1), E10.

Mader, K., & Mehnert, W. (2005). Solid lipid nanoparticles-concepts, procedures and physicochemical aspects. In: Lipospheres in drug targets and delivery. Ed. Nastruzzi, C. Florida: CRC press, 1-22.

Moghimipour, E., Ramezani, Z., & Handali, S. ( 2013). Solid lipid nanoparticles as a delivery system for Zataria multiflora essential oil: formulation and characterization. Current Drug Delivery, 10, 151-157.

Nasseri, M., Arouiee, H.,Golmohammadzadeh, S.,Jaafari, M.R., & Neamati, H. (2015.) Antifungal effects of Zataria multiflora essential oil on the inhibitory growth of some postharvest pathogenic fungi. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 7(4), 412-416.

Pérez-de-Luque, A., & Rubiales, D. (2009). Nanotechnology for parasitic plant control. Pest Management Science, 65, 540-545.

Pizzol, C.D., Filippin-Monteiro, F.B., Restrepo, J.A.S., Pittella, F., Silva, A.H., Souza, P.A., Campos, A.M., & Creczynski-Pasa, T.B. (2014). Influence of surfactant and lipid type on the physicochemical propertiesand biocompatibility of solid lipid nanoparticles. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 8581-8596.

Plotto, A., Roberts, R.G., & Roberts, D.D. (2003). Evaluation of plant essential oils as natural postharvest disease control of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Acta Horticulture, 628: 737 - 745.doi

Schäfer-Korting, M., & Mehnert, W. (2005). Delivery of Lipophilic Compounds with LipidNanoparticles-Applications in Dermatics and for Transdermal Therapy. In: Lipospheres in drug targets and delivery: approaches, methods, and applications. Ed. Nastruzzi, C., 1st ed. pp. 128-139. London: CRC Press.

Shi, F., Zhao, J., Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y. & Feng, N. (2012). Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with frankincense and myrrh oil. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 7, 2033–2043.

Wang, L., Liu, L., Kerry, J. F., & Kerry, J. P. (2007). Assessment of film-forming potential andproperties of protein and polysaccharide-based biopolymer films. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42, 1128-1138.

Wissing, S.A., & Muller, R.H. (2002). The influence of the crystallinity of lipid57- nanoparticles on their occlusive properties. International Journal Pharmaceutical, 242, 377-379.

Wissing, S.A., Kayser, O., & Muller, R.H. (2004). Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery.  Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 56(9), 1257-1272.