Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran

2 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran


Purpose: Boron toxicity is an important factor, which reduces crop productivity, quality and medicinal characteristics around the world. Research method: This research was conducted to investigate the effect of different boron (B) concentrations on growth, chemical and physiological characteristics of Satureja hortensis plants under greenhouse conditions in 2016. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse with 25±3 °C and 15±3 °C (day-night) temperatures, 60% relative humidity and 340 ppm CO2 concentration. Treatments were different B concentrations as H3BO3 that used via irrigation water including 0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg L–1. Main findings: Results indicated that total nitrogen, Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a, b and total, leaf number, relative water content (RWC), specific leaf weight (SLW), areal fresh and dry weights significantly decreased by B increase. On the other hand, increased B concentration in leaf was led to increasing of F0, ΦN0, proline, total carbohydrate and phenolics, specific leaf area and leaf electrolyte leakage. Limitations: No significant limitation to report. Originality/Value: It is concluded that summer savory can tolerate B concentrations up to 10 mg L–1, and leaf boron accumulation significantly inhibited, however, increased with more B concentration of root medium, which affected all physiological aspects mentioned above.


Main Subjects

Barrs, H. D., & Weatherley, P. E. (1962). A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficits in leaves. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 15(3), 413-428.

Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39(1), 205-207.

Brown, P. H., & Hu, H. (1996). Phloem mobility of boron is species dependent: evidence for phloem mobility in sorbitol-rich species. Annals of Botany, 77(5), 497-506.

Brown, P. H., & Shelp, B. J. (1997). Boron mobility in plants. Plant and Soil, 193(1-2), 85-101.

Cave, G., Tolley, L. C., & Strain, B. R. (1981). Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on chlorophyll content, starch content and starch grain structure in Trifolium subterraneum leaves. Physiologia Plantarum, 51(2), 171-174.

Feigin, A., Ravina, I., & Shalhevet, J. (2012). Irrigation with treated sewage effluent: Management for Environmental Protection (Vol. 17). Springer Science & Business Media.

Genty, B., Briantais, J. M., & Baker, N. R. (1989). The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 990(1), 87-92.

Goldberg, S., Shouse, P. J., Lesch, S. M., Grieve, C. M., Poss, J. A., Forster, H. S., & Suarez, D. L. (2003). Effect of high boron application on boron content and growth of melons. Plant and Soil, 256(2), 403-411.

Guidi, L., Degl’Innocenti, E., Carmassi, G., Massa, D., & Pardossi, A. (2011). Effects of boron on leaf chlorophyll fluorescence of greenhouse tomato grown with saline water. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 73, 57-63.

Han, S., Tang, N., Jiang, H. X., Yang, L. T., Li, Y., & Chen, L. S. (2009). CO2 assimilation, photosystem II photochemistry, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant system of citrus leaves in response to boron stress. Plant Science, 176(1), 143-153.

Herms, D. A., & Mattson, W. J. (1992). The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 67(3), 283-335.

Hunt, R. (1990). Basic growth analysis. In: Plant Growth Analysis for Beginners, London: Unwin Hyman, 110p.

Irigoyen, J. J., Einerich, D. W., & Sánchez-Díaz, M. (1992). Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativd) plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 84(1), 55-60.

Landi, M., Pardossi, A., Remorini, D., & Guidi, L. (2013). Antioxidant and photosynthetic response of a purple-leaved and a green-leaved cultivar of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) to boron excess. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 85, 64-75.

Lee, J., & Scagel, C. F. (2009). Chicoric acid found in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. Food Chemistry, 115(2), 650-656.

Lutts, S., Kinet, J. M., & Bouharmont, J. (1995). Changes in plant response to NaCl during development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties differing in salinity resistance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 46(12), 1843-1852.

Makkar, H. P., Blümmel, M., Borowy, N. K., & Becker, K. (1993). Gravimetric determination of tannins and their correlations with chemical and protein precipitation methods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 61(2), 161-165.

Mihajilov-Krstev, T., Radnović, D., Kitić, D., Stojanović-Radić, Z., & Zlatković, B. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil against pathogenic microbial strains. Archives of Biological Sciences, 62(1), 159-166.

Mittler, R. (2002). Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant Science, 7(9), 405-410.

Mullen, W., Marks, S. C., & Crozier, A. (2007). Evaluation of phenolic compounds in commercial fruit juices and fruit drinks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(8), 3148-3157.

Muntean, D. W. (2015). Boron, the overlooked essential element. Bellevue: Soil and Plant Laboratory Inc.

Nable, R. O., Ba-uelos, G. S. & Paull, J. G. (1997). Boron toxicity. Plant Soil, 193, 181-198.

Nalini Pandey, A. (2013). Antioxidant responses and water status in Brassica seedlings subjected to boron stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35(3), 697-706.

Paparnakis, A., Chatzissavvidis, C., & Antoniadis, V. (2013). How apple responds to boron excess in acidic and limed soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 7, 787-796.

Powell, R. L., Kimerle, R. A., Coyle, G. T., & Best, G. R. (1997). Ecological risk assessment of a wetland exposed to boron. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16(11), 2409-2414.

Princi, M. P., Lupini, A., Araniti, F., Sunseri, F., & Abenavoli, M. R. (2013). Short-term effects of boron excess on root morphological and functional traits in tomato. In: XVII International Plant Nutrition Colloquium- Boron Satellite Meeting–Proceedings Book–17–18 August 2013. Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 1150-1151.

Reid, R. J., Hayes, J. E., Post, A., Stangoulis, J. C. R., & Graham, R. D. (2004). A critical analysis of the causes of boron toxicity in plants. Plant, Cell & Environment, 27(11), 1405-1414.

Rice-Evans, C., Miller, N., & Paganga, G. (1997). Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends in Plant Science, 2(4), 152-159.

Roháček, K. (2002). Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the definitions, photosynthetic meaning, and mutual relationships. Photosynthetica, 40, 13-29.

Rozema, J., van de Staaij, J., Björn, L. O., & Caldwell, M. (1997). UV-B as an environmental factor in plant life: stress and regulation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12(1), 22-28.

Saini, R. S., Sharme, K. D., Dhankhar, O. P., & Kaushik, R. A. (2001). Laboratory Manual of Analytical Techniques in Horticulture. Published by Agrobois: India, pp. 49-50.

Sarafi, S., Siomos, A., Tsouvaltzis, P., Chatzissavvidis, Ch., & Therios, I. 2017. Boron toxicity effects on grafted and non-grafted pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 17(2), 441-460.

Šetlík, I., Allakhverdiev, S. I., Nedbal, L., Šetlíková, E., & Klimov, V. V. (1990). Three types of photosystem II photoinactivation. Photosynthesis Research, 23(1), 39-48.

Shah, A., Wu, X., Ullah, A., Fahad, S., Muhammad, R., Yan, L., & Jiang, C. 2017. Deficiency and toxicity of boron: Alterations in growth, oxidative damage and uptake by citrange orange plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 145, 575-582.

Sharp, R. E., & LeNoble, M. E. (2002). ABA, ethylene and the control of shoot and root growth under water stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 53(366), 33-37.

Šilić, Č. (1979). Monografija rodova Satureja L., Calamintha miller, Micromeria bentham, Acinos miller I clinopodium L. Flora Jugoslavije. Zemaljski Muzej BiH, Sarajevo.

Simón-Grao, S., Nieves, M., Martínez-Nicolás, J. J., Cámara-Zapata, J.M., Alfosea-Simón, M., & García-Sánchez, F. (2018). Response of three citrus genotypes used as rootstocks grown under boron excess conditions. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 15, 159:10-19

Sonmez, O., Aydemir, S., & Kaya, C. (2009). Mitigation effects of mycorrhiza on boron toxicity in wheat (Triticum durum) plants. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 37(2), 99-104.

Surveswaran, S., Cai, Y. Z., Corke, H., & Sun, M. (2007). Systematic evaluation of natural phenolic antioxidants from 133 Indian medicinal plants. Food Chemistry, 102(3), 938-953.

Tanaka, M., & Fujiwara, T. (2008). Physiological roles and transport mechanisms of boron: perspectives from plants. Archiv-European Journal of Physiology, 456(4), 671-677.

Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Keren, R., & Reid, R. J. (2008). Combined effect of salinity and excess boron on plant growth and yield. Plant and Soil, 304(1-2), 73-87.

Zhang, H. B., & Xu, D. Q. (2003). Role of light-harvesting complex 2 dissociation in protecting the photosystem 2 reaction centres against photodamage in soybean leaves and thylakoids. Photosynthetica, 41(3), 383-391.