Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil PMB 3244 Kano, Kano State. Nigeria

2 The Postharvest Education Foundation, P.O. Box: 38 La Pine, Oregon 97739, USA

Abstract

Purpose: Maize output is decreasing in developing countries due to poor postharvest management despite the huge investments. The study is aimed at identifying and quantifying sources and causes of postharvest losses from farm to retail and suggest appropriate interventions for reducing these losses. Research Method: Commodity system assessment on postharvest handling, storage and marketing of maize was conducted between July and August, 2017 in Nigeria, Rwanda and Punjab (India) using surveys, interviews, observations, measurements and quantification of losses along the value chain. Postharvest quality and economic loss assessments along the chain were based on physical damage, decay and weight loss. Findings: Causes of postharvest losses at farm level are similar in all the countries studied, with sorting losses from 2 to 50% and drying losses from 10 to 40%. Damage and defects were extremely high in Rwanda at the farm level. Maize is stored for 5 to 10 months with 2 to 3.5% damage in Nigeria and 6% in Rwanda. Maize is stacked in sacks during wholesale and cleaning rejects obtained is 2 to 11% in Nigeria and India, little or no sorting in Rwanda at wholesale. Postharvest losses are 15%, 60% and 20% of total produce for Nigeria, Rwanda and Punjab, which account for economic losses of $720 million, $131.2 million and $8.2 million respectively. Limitations: The research is limited to major production areas in the three countries because of funding. Originality/Value: The study identified problems, sources and causes of post-harvest losses and suggests appropriate interventions, training needs and advocacy issues to reduce these losses.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Cadoni, P., & Angelucci, F. (2013). Analysis of incentives and disincentives for maize in Nigeria. Technical notes series, MAFAP FA, Roma. pp. 6-9. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-at580e. pdf downloaded on 5/8/17.

CGIAR (2016). Research Program on Maize. Annual Report 2016. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre. Texcoco, Mexico. Retrieved from https://spark.adobe.com/page/V4lC0aGOCKRpA/

Daly, J., Hamick, D., Gereffi, G., & Guinn, A. (2017). Maize value chains in East Africa. IGC Rwanda Policy Brief. February 2017. Retrieved from https://www.theigc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Maize-value-chains.pdf

GIZ (2013). Value chain at a glimpse. Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Nigeria. pp. 12-16. Retrieved from www.share4dev.info/fmard/ documents/5249pdf on 5/8/17

Government of Punjab (2017). Area Yield and Production of Main Crops 2012 to 2017

Kitinoja, L., Dandago, M. A., & Abdullahi, N. (2019). Postharvest loss of Maize along its value chain in Nigeria. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, 10(1), 13-19. https://doi.org/10.5897/JSPPR2018.0275

LaGra, J. (1990). A commodity systems assessment methodology for problem and project identification. Postharvest Institute for Perishables, University of Idaho - Moscow, Idaho. Retrieved from https://ucanr.edu/datastoreFiles/234-1319.pdf

LaGra, J., Kitinoja L., & Alpizar, K. (2016). Commodity Systems Assessment Methodology for Value Chain Problem and Project Identification: A first step in food loss reduction. San Jose, Costa Rica: IICA. 246 pp. Retrieved from http://repiica.iica.int/docs/B4232i/B4232i.pdf

Meridian Institute (No date). Science and innovation for African agricultural value chains. Maize value chain overview. Retrieved from https://vol11.cases.som.yale.edu/sites/default/files/cases/millennium_maize_mills/Meridian%20Institute%20Maize%20Value%20Chian.pdf

Mutungi, C., Edoh-Ognakossan, K., & Affognon, H. (2018). Impact of rodent infestation on availability, safety and nutritional value of maize stored on-farm in lowland tropical zone of Kenya. 12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP). Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5073/jka.2018.463.015

National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) (2018). Agricultural performance survey report of 2018 wet season in Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University Press. 130 p.

Olaniyan, B. A. (2015). Maize: The panacea for hunger in Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science, 9(3), 155-174.  Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPS2014.1203

Rwibasira, E. (2016). Effect of crop intensification on maize production in Nyagatare, Rwanda. International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Dev. Studies, 3(4), 87-102. Retrieved from http://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/Effect-of-Crop-Intensification-Program-on-Maize-Production-in-Nyagatare-Rwanda. pdf

SAHEL (2017). Maize: enhancing the livelihoods of Nigerian farmers. 14, 1-2. Retrieved from http://sahelcp.com/maize-enhancing-livelihoods-nigerian-farmers/        

USDA (2017). Nutritional information for maize via USDA website. Retrieved from https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/accessed in October 2017.