Document Type: Review Article


Department of Food Production, Faculty of Food and Agriculture, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad


Purpose: This paper provides an in-depth critical review and analysis of recent research undertaken to optimize quality during harvesting, postharvest handling, processing and utilization of breadnut (Artocarpus camansi Blanco). Findings: This treatise provided a comprehensive review on the significance of breadnut as an ideal staple and famine food due to its abundance, processing options, high percentage of complex carbohydrates, unique flavor and culinary qualities. Market potential for this fruit across the globe and its projection to multiply is reviewed as related to increasing demand for fiber rich fruits, utilization in ethnic cuisine and in traditional medicine. The fruit is highly perishable with a shelf life of not more than 2-3 days under ambient conditions. Breadnut rapidly transforms when harvested mature green after 2-3 days to a soft texture and the outer skin of the milky white seeds change to a brown, brittle, tough netlike rind while the flesh changes from a white colour to a light yellow colour. The combined effects of rapid softening and high susceptibility to chilling injury contribute immensely to its short shelf life. Limitations: There were no significant limitations as the literature was available and access to communicate with authors were easily facilitated by the internet. Directions for future research:This istheonly review which collated the findings on postharvest physiology and utilization of breadnut. This information will be useful for tree breeding programs, in order to popularize breadnut as a commercial crop and promote food security at the household and community levels.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects

Adaku, J., Amadi, C., Ndukwu1, S.O. & Nwachukwu, N.C. (2019). Dietary fibre and fatty acid evaluation of boiled, roasted, germinated and fermented breadnut seed flours. Journal of Food Science and Engineering, 9, 182-190. doi: 10.17265/2159-5828/2019.05.004.  

Adeleke, R.O., & Abiodun, O. A. (2010). Nutritional composition of breadnut seeds (Artocarpus camansi). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(11), 1273-1276.

Amadi, J.A.C., David-Chuku, N.P. & Asinobi, C.O. (2019). Effect of boiling and fermentation on nutrient profile of breadnut (Artocarpus camansi) seed flours. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences, 40(1), 49-54. ISSN: 0189-0913

Ante, I., Aboaba, S., Siddiqui, H. & Choudhary, M.I.  (2016). Essential oils of the leaf, stem-bark, and nut of Artocarpus camansi: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis and activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria.  Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 22(3), 203-210.

Azizah, A. H., & Zanion, H. (2009). Effects of processing on dietary fibre of selected legumes and cereals. Journal of Nutrition, 3, 131-136. doi:10.13140/2.1.4554.8164.

Barrau, J. (1976). Breadfruit and relatives. In Evolution of crop plants (Simmonds NW ed.). Longman, London, pp 201-202. ISBN-13: 978-0582086432.

Bennett, F. D., & Nozzollilo, C. (1988). How many seeds in a seeded breadfruit, A. altilis (Moraceae). Economic Botany, 41(3), 370-374.

Brown, W. H. (1943). Useful plants of the Philippines, Philippine Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Technical Bulletin, 10(1), 453-455.

Bridgemohan, P., & Mohammed, M. (2019, July). Ethnic recipes of breadnut fruits for special events in Trinidad and Tobago. Presented at Ethnic Food and Small Equipment Seminar and Food Festival, Central Trinidad. 3pp.

Chundawat, S.P.S., da Costa Sousa, L., Roy, S.,  Yang, Z., Gupta, S., Pal, R., Zhao, C., Liu, S.H.,  Petridis, L., O'Neill, H. & Pingali, S.V. (2020). Ammonia-salt solvent promotes cellulosic biomass deconstruction under ambient pretreatment conditions to enable rapid soluble sugar production at ultra-low enzyme loadings. Green Chemistry, 22(1), 204-218.

Coronel, R. E. (1994). “Atis.” In Promising Fruits of the Philippines (Coronel RE; Zuno JC and Sotto RC eds.). College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. 102 pp.

Coronel, R. E. (1991). (Tamarindus indica L). In Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts (Verheij E.W.M. and Coronel, R.E. eds.) Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 298-301.

de Bravo, E., Graham, H.D., & Pandovani, M. (1983). Composition of the seeded breadnut. Caribbean Journal of Science, 19, 27-32.

Echendu, C. A., Obizoba, I. C., & Anyinka, J. U. (2009). Effects of germination on the chemical composition of ground bean seeds. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(12), 1849-1854. ISSN 1680-5194.

Fagbemi, T.N., Oshodi, A.A., & Ipinmoroti, K.O. (2005). Processing effects on some antinutritional factors and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility of three tropical seeds: Breadnut (Atocarpus camansi), Cashew nut (Ancardium occidentale) and fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis). Parkistan Journal of Nutrition, 4(4), 250-256. ISSN 1680-5194.

French, B. R. (Ed.). (1988). Food plants of Papua New Guinea: A Compendium, Australia and Pacific Science Foundation, Tasmania, Australia.

Future Market Insights (FMI) (2020). Breadnut Market: Global Industry Analysis 2012 - 2016 and Opportunity Assessment; 2017-2027. 4pp.

Go, M.B., Velos, S.V., Minyamin, A.V., Bagsit, R.D., & Pableo, R.G. (2015). Sensory evaluation, shelf life and nutritional composition of breadnut (Artocarpus camansi) cookies. Tropical Technology Journal, 19(1), 1-10.

Harnarine, R. (2019). Quality characteristics of breadnut seed as a substitute for local ethnic cuisines. Presented at Ethnic Food and Small Equipment Seminar and Food Festival, Central Trinidad. 2pp.

Harnarine, R., & Salick, R. (2016). Automating the process for preparing chataigne (breadnut) for cooking. Tropical Agriculture Special Issue, 93(1), 197. (Abstract).

Lim, L.B.L., Priyantha, N., Tennakoon, D.T.B., Chieng, H.I., Dahri, M.K., & Suklueng M. (2017). Breadnut peel as a highly effective low-cost biosorbent for methylene blue: Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 10(2), 3216-3228.

Malomo, S.A., Eleyminmi, A.F., & Fassakin, J.B. (2011). Chemical composition, rheological properties and bread making potentials of composite flours from breadfruit, breadnut and wheat. African Journal of Food, 5(7), 400-410.

Mohammed, M. & Wickham, L.D. (2011). Breadnut (Artocarpus camansi Blanco). In Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Chapter 13(2), (Yahia E.M. ed.). Woodhead Publications Ltd, USA, 272-289.

Mohammed, M., & Wickham L.D. (2003). Changes in physical, chemical and organoleptic quality characteristics of breadnut during growth and development, Presented at University of West Indies Field Station Seminar/ Field Day, 12 pp.

Mohammed, M., & Wickham L.D. (1996). Effects of modified atmosphere packaging and temperature during storage of breadnut. Presented at CARDI/CTA Workshop on Marketability of Caribbean Fruits, 15 pp.

Mohammed, M., & Wickham, L.D. (2016). Physiological manifestations of chilling injury in breadnut (Artocarpus camansi Blanco.). Tropical Agriculture, 93(1), 149-155.

Mohammed, M., & Bridgemohan, P. (2020). Modified atmosphere packaging supplemented with selected antioxidants reduced enzymatic browning of fresh-cut breadnut during storage. (In Press).

Nelson-Quartey, F.C., Amagloh, F.K., Oduro, I.N., & Ellis, W.O. (2007). Formulation of an infant food based on breadfruit and breadnut.  Acta Horticulturae, 757, 214-215.

Noah, A.A., & Ogunfowote, O.O. (2017). Microbiological quality of raw, boiled and fermented breadnut seed (Artocarpus camansi) - Used as Condiment. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 6(3), 1-9.

Nwabueze, T.U. (1999). Effect of blanching on the composition and characteristics of breadnut flour. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research, 6, 94-99. /10.4314/jacar. v2i1.41117.

Ochse, J.J., Soule, M.J., Dijman, M.J., & Wehlberg, C. (Eds.) (1961). Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture. New York: McMillan Press. ISBN 10: 0025924206

Oladele, A. K., & Oshodi, J. A. (2013). Chemical composition and functional properties of flour produced from two varieties of Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(21), 2473-2476.

Olguin-Maciel, E., Larqué-Saavedra, A., Lappe-Oliveras, P.E., Barahona-Pérez, L.F., Alzate-Gaviria, L., Chablé-Villacis, R., Domínguez-Maldonado, J., Pacheco-Catalán, D., Ruíz, H.A., & Tapia-Tussell, R. (2019). Consolidated bioprocess for bioethanol production from raw flour of breadnut seeds using the native strain of Trametes hirsuta Bm-2. Microorganisms, 7, 483-499.

Oshodi, A.A., Ipinmoroti, K.O., & Fagbemi, T.N. (1999). Chemical composition, amino acid analysis and functional properties of breadnut flour. Molecular Nutrition, 43(6), 402-405.

Purseglove, J.W. (Ed.). (1974). Tropical Crops. ‘Dicotyledons. Vol. 2. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Rabeta, M.S., & Nor Syafiqah, M.J. (2016). Proximate composition, mineral and total phenolic contents, and scavenging activity of breadnut fruit (Artocarpus camansi). Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science, 44(1), 1-7.

Ragone, D. (2006). Artocarpus camansi (breadnut)’, ver.2.1. In Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (Elevitch CR ed.) Permanent Agriculture Resources, Holuala, Hawaii,11pp. ISBN: 0970254458.

Ragone, D. (2011). Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis). In (Elevitch, CR. (ed.). Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry (Elevitch, CR. (ed.). Permanent Agriculture Resources, Holuala, Hawaii, ISBN 978-0970254481.

Ramos-Ruiz, R., Felix Martinez., F. & Knauf-Beiter, G. (2019). The effects of GABA in plants, Cogent Food and Agriculture, 5, 1-12.

Ricker, M.A., & Haas, W.C. (2017). Anti-inflammatory diet in clinical practice: A review. Nutrition in  Clinical  Practice. 32(3), 318-325.

Roberts-Nkrumah, L.B. (2005). Fruit and seed yields in chataigne (Artocarpus camansiBlanco) in Trinidad and Tobago, Fruits, 60(6), 387-393.

Roberts-Nkrumah, L.B. (Ed.). (2012). Breadnut and breadfruit propagation: A manual for commercial propagation. Rome: FAO Publishing Policy and Support Branch. ISBN 978-92-5-107374-2.

Roberts-Nkrumah, L.B. (Ed.). (2015). Breadfruit and breadnut orchard management: A manual for commercial production.Rome: FAO Publishing Policy and Support Branch. ISBN 978-92-5-108812-8.

Zamora, C.M., Joana, L.B., Vasquez, J.L.B., Ebison, M.A.C.V., & Sibucao, M.D. (2017). Utilization of breadnut (Artocarpus camansi) as a meat replacement for meatballs. Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2017 De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines. 6pp.