Document Type : Short Communication Article


1 Scientific Research Organisation of Samoa, Apia, Samoa

2 School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah NSW 2258, Australia


Purpose: Breadfruit is a tropical climacteric fruit consumed as an unripe starchy vegetable hence export requires some postharvest technology to inhibit ripening during marketing.  Research in the Caribbean found storage at 12 °C was optimal to delay ripening without fruit developing chilling injury.  Breadfruit is a major horticultural commodity in Samoa with New Zealand a target export destination.  This paper examines the ability of low temperatures to extend the storage life of unripe Samoan breadfruit and thus facilitate export. Research method: Puou and Maafala breadfruit were stored at temperatures from 12 to 25 °C and observed for time to ripen and to exhibit chilling injury symptoms as these factors determine storage life. Main findings: Time to ripen increased as the temperature was lowered but chilling injury occurred on all fruit stored at 12 and 15 °C and many stored at 17 °C.  The longest storage life was attained at 17 °C with 11 days for Puou and 16 days for Maafala fruit with storage terminated by a mix of fruit ripening and developing chilling injury. Limitations: Questions remain as to the importance of mild chilling injury to influence purchase. Originality/Value: Samoan breadfruit is more chilling sensitive than Caribbean fruit and thus must be transported at higher temperatures than Caribbean fruit.  Use of 17 °C gave the longest storage life for Samoan breadfruit which is sufficient for the 10 days required to export by air to New Zealand but is less than the 21 days required to export breadfruit by sea. 


Main Subjects

Andrews, L. (1991). Breadfruit varieties in the Windward Islands. Tropical Fruits Newsletter, 1, 3-4.

Maharaj, R., & Sankat, C. K. (1990). The shelf-life of breadfruit stored under ambient and refrigerated conditions. Acta Horticulturae, 269, 411-424.

McGregor, A., & Stice , K. (2018).  Breadfruit market and marketing of Pacific Island breadfruit with a focus on Fiji and Samoa. Feb. 2018, pp 103.

Samoa MAFFM (2002). Growing and marketing breadfruit as a commercial crop. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Meteorology Fruit Tree Development Project Report, May 2002, pp 36.

Thompson, A. K., Been, B. O., & Perkins, C. (1974).  Storage of fresh breadfruit. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 51, 407-415.

Wills, R. B. H., & Golding, J. B. (2016). Postharvest: an Introduction to the Physiology and Handling of Fruit and Vegetables. 6th ed., Sydney, UNSW Press.

Wills, R. B. H., Warton, M. A., Mussa, D. M. D. N., & Chew, L. P. (2001).  Ripening of climacteric fruits initiated at low ethylene levels.  Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 41, 89-92.

Worldometers. (2018). Samoa population., accessed on 1 May 2018.

Worrell, D. B., Carrington, C. M. S., & Huber, D. J. (1998). Growth, maturation and ripening of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis (Park.) Fosb. Scientia Horticulturae, 76, 17-28.

Worrell, D. B., Carrington, C. M. S., & Huber, D. J. (2002). The use of low temperature and coatings to maintain storage quality of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis (Parks.) Fosb. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 25, 33-40.