Document Type : Original Article


Department of Horticultural Science, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran


Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus L.) is marketed for its unique flavor and benefits. The shelf life of fresh button mushroom is limited and its quality decreases rapidly during storage mainly due to high respiration rate. Postharvest changes of browning of the cap, softening of tissues, moisture loss and development of off-flavor lose its marketability. Modified atmosphere rich in CO2 can modify respiration rate, energy metabolism and physiological changes in postharvest storage of many fresh products. In this study, button mushrooms were treated with high CO2 concentration (95%) for 0 (control), 6 or 24 h. Thereafter, the mushrooms were ventilated and packed in polyethylene lid containers 500 ml (packed with its lid) (PE-LC) or polyethylene containers cellophane wrapped (PE-CCW) and were then stored in a refrigerator at 4 °C for 14 days. The results showed that high CO2 treatment for 24 h that were packed in polyethylene container cellophane wrapped significantly affected the shelf life and maintained the flavor of button mushroom during refrigerated storage compared to the control. In addition, after 14 days of cold storage 24 h high CO2 treated samples that were packed with PE-CCW had better taste and flavor than the control. Color of treated mushrooms especially the BI index in both CO2 durations was better than control samples. Generally mushroom whiteness, which is an important quality aspect, was also observed the best in 24 h high CO2 treated samples packed with PE-CCW than other treatments and the control.


  • High CO2 treated samples for 24 h that were packed in polyethylene container cellophane wrapped significantly affected the shelf life and maintained the flavor of button mushroom during refrigerated storage.
  • Treated mushrooms maintained higher levels of firmness, taste, flavor and overall acceptability.
  • Color of treated mushrooms especially the browning index (BI) in both CO2 durations (6 and 24 h) was better than control samples.


Main Subjects

Aguero, M. V., Barg, M. V., Yommi, A., & Roura, S. I. (2010). Differential effects of low humidity levels on butterhead quality indices related to external, middle and internal lettuce sections. International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation, 2(1), 25-40.

Alikhani Koupaei, M., Mazlumzadeh, M., Sharifani, M., & Adibian, M. (2014). Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest. Food Science & Nutrition, 2(5), 526-533.

Antmann, G., Ares, G. n., Lema, P., & Lareo, C. (2008). Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on sensory quality of shiitake mushrooms. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 49(1), 164-170.

Ares, G. n., Lareo, C., & Lema, P. (2007). Modified atmosphere packaging for postharvest storage of mushrooms. A review. Fresh Produce, 1(1), 32-40.

Ares, G. n., Parentelli, C., G mbaro, A., Lareo, C., & Lema, P. (2006). Sensory shelf life of shiitake mushrooms stored under passive modified atmosphere. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41(2), 191-197.

Beelman, R., Guthrie, B., & Royse, D. (1989). Influence of bacterial populations on postharvest deterioration of fresh mushrooms. Mushroom Science, 12(Part II), 655-666.

Blanch, M. a., Rosales, R., Palma, F., Sanchez-Ballesta, M. a. T., Escribano, M. a. I., & Merodio, C. (2015). CO2-driven changes in energy and fermentative metabolism in harvested strawberries. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 110, 33-39.

Brennan, M.H. & Gromley, T.R. (1998). Extending the shelf life of fresh sliced mushrooms. Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority Final Report. ARMIS Project No. 4196, Dublin: Teagase, p. 22.

Briones, G. L., Varoquaux, P., Chambroy, Y., Bouquant, J., Bureau, G., & Pascat, B. (1992). Storage of common mushroom under controlled atmospheres. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 27(5), 493-505.

Burton, K., Frost, C. E., & Nichols, R. (1987). A combination plastic permeable film system for controlling post-harvest mushroom quality. Biotechnology Letters, 9(8), 529-534.

Dhalsamant, K., Dash, S. K., Bal, L. M., & Panda, M. K. (2015). Effect of perforation mediated MAP on shelf life of mushroom (Volvariella volvacea). Scientia Horticulturae, 189, 41-50.

Doores, S., Kramer, M., & Beelman, R. (1987). Evaluation and bacterial populations associated with fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Developments in Crop Science.

Fernandes, n., Antonio, A. L., Barreira, J. o. C., Oliveira, M. B. P., Martins, A., & Ferreira, I. C. (2012). Effects of gamma irradiation on physical parameters of Lactarius deliciosus wild edible mushrooms. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 74, 79-84.

Gao, Pisheng, Zhu, Z., & Zhang, P. (2013). Effects of chitosan–glucose complex coating on postharvest quality and shelf life of table grapes. Carbohydrate Polymers, 95(1), 371-378.

Gao, M., Feng, L., & Jiang, T. (2014). Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment. Food Chemistry, 149, 107-113.

Gol, N. B., Patel, P. R., & Rao, T. R. (2013). Improvement of quality and shelf-life of strawberries with edible coatings enriched with chitosan. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 85, 185-195.

Gormley, R. (1975). Chill storage of mushrooms. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 26(4), 401-411.

Gorris, L., & Tauscher, B. (1999). Quality and safety aspects of novel minimal processing technologies. In Processing of food quality optimisation and process assessment, CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 325-339.

Guan, W., Fan, X., & Yan, R. (2012). Effects of UV-C treatment on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157: H7, microbial loads, and quality of button mushrooms. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 64(1), 119-125.

Guan, W., Fan, X., & Yan, R. (2013). Effect of combination of ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157: H7, native microbial loads, and quality of button mushrooms. Food Control, 34(2), 554-559.

Guillaume, C., Schwab, I., Gastaldi, E., & Gontard, N. (2010). Biobased packaging for improving preservation of fresh common mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.). Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 11(4), 690-696.

Hammad, F., Ji, J., Watling, R., & Moore, D. (1993). Cell population dynamics in Coprinus cinereus: co-ordination of cell inflation throughout the maturing basidiome. Mycological Research, 97(3), 269-274.

Iqbal, T., Rodrigues, F., Mahajan, P., & Kerry, J. (2009). Effect of time, temperature, and slicing on respiration rate of mushrooms. Journal of Food Science, 74(6), 298-303.

Kade, & AA. (1986). Biochemical and physiological basis for effects of controlled and modified atmospheres on fruits and vegetables. Food Technology 40, 99-104.

Kim, M. Y., Seguin, P., Ahn, J. K., Kim, J. J., Chun, S. C., Kim, E. H. & Ro, H. M. (2008). Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(16), 7265-7270.

Kim, Myong, K., Ko, J. A., Lee, J. S., Park, H. J., & Hanna, M. A. (2006). Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf-life of coated, whole and sliced mushrooms. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 39(4), 365-372.

Kurtzman, R. H. (1997). Nutrition from mushrooms, understanding and reconciling available data. Mycoscience, 38(2), 247-253.

Lagnika, Camel, Zhang, M., & Mothibe, K. J. (2013). Effects of ultrasound and high pressure argon on physico-chemical properties of white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 82, 87-94.

Lagnika, C., Zhang, M., Nsor-Atindana, J., & Bashari, M. (2014). Effects of ultrasound and chemical treatments on white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) prior to modified atmosphere packaging in extending shelf-life. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(12), 3749–3757.

Lin, Q., Lu, Y., Zhang, J., Liu, W., Guan, W., & Wang, Z. (2017). Effects of high CO 2 in-package treatment on flavor, quality and antioxidant activity of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 123, 112-118.

Lumpkin, C., Fellman, J. K., Rudell, D. R., & Mattheis, J. P. (2015). ‘Fuji’apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) volatile production during high CO2 controlled atmosphere storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 100, 234-243.

Manzi, P., Aguzzi, A., & Pizzoferrato, L. (2001). Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy. Food Chemistry, 73(3), 321-325.

Masson, Y., Ainsworth, P., Fuller, D., Bozkurt, H., & Bano Lu, E. (2002). Growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida sake in homogenized mushrooms under modified atmosphere. Journal of Food Engineering, 54(2), 125-131.

Mostofi, Y., Mosayebzadeh, A., Emamjomeh, Z., Nikkhah, M. J., & Dehestaniardakani, M. (2010). Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on storage life and maintainance quality grapes cv. Shahroodi. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 41(2), 163-172.

Nichols, R. (1985). Post-harvest physiology and storage. In The biology and technology of the cultivated mushroom, Flegg, P. B., Spencer, D. M., & Wood, D. A. (Ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, UK, 195-210.

Oliveira, F., Sousa-Gallagher, M., Mahajan, P., & Teixeira, J. (2012). Development of shelf-life kinetic model for modified atmosphere packaging of fresh sliced mushrooms. Journal of Food Engineering, 111(2), 466-473.

Parentelli, C., Ares, G. N., Corona, M., Lareo, C., G mbaro, A., & Soubes, M. (2007). Sensory and microbiological quality of shiitake mushrooms in modified atmosphere packages. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87(9), 1645-1652.

Phillips, C. A. (1996). Modified atmosphere packaging and its effects on the microbiological quality and safety of produce. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 31(6), 463-479.

Rico, D., Martin-Diana, A. B., Barat, J., & Barry-Ryan, C. (2007). Extending and measuring the quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetables: a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 18(7), 373-386.

Saltveit, M. J. (1997). A summary of CA and MA requirements and recommendations for harvested vegetables. In: saltveit ME (Ed) proceeding of the 7th  International Controlled Atmosphere Research Conference (Vol. 4), Davis, CA, USA, (pp. 98-117).

Sedaghat, N., & Vahedi, N. (2015). Evaluation of several methods for preservation and packaging of the button white mushroom to increase its shelf life. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 11(1), 22-30.

Shahiri Tabarestani, H., Sedaghat, N., & Alipour, A. (2013). Shelf life improvement and postharvest quality of cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit using basil mucilage edible coating and cumin essential oil. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4(9), 2346-2353.

Simon, A., Gonz lez Fandos, E., & Tobar, V. (2005). The sensory and microbiological quality of fresh sliced mushroom (Agaricus bisporus L.) packaged in modified atmospheres. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 40(9), 943-952.

Simón, A., & González-Fandos, E. (2010). Effect of washing with citric acid or sodium hypochlorite on the visual and microbiological quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.). Journal of Food Quality, 33, 273–285.

Singh, P., Langowski, H. C., Wani, A. A., & Saengerlaub, S. (2010). Recent advances in extending the shelf life of fresh Agaricus mushrooms: a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(9), 1393-1402.

Stone, H., Bleibaum, R., & Thomas, H. A. (2012). Sensory evaluation practices. San Diego:  Academic Press.

Tomkins, R. G. (1966). The storage of mushrooms. MGA Bulletin, 202, 534-541.

Varoquaux, P., Gouble, B., Barron, C., & Yildiz, F. (1999). Respiratory parameters and sugar catabolism of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Lange). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 16(1), 51-61.

Wu, X., Guan, W., Yan, R., Lei, J., Xu, L., & Wang, Z. (2016). Effects of UV-C on antioxidant activity, total phenolics and main phenolic compounds of the melanin biosynthesis pathway in different tissues of button mushroom. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 118, 51-58.

Xiong, L. (2000). Extend Shelf Life of Mushroom by Using Micro-perforated Film (a research proposal). Department of Food Science. Pennsylvania State University, 1-22.

Yi, J., Feng, H., Bi, J., Zhou, L., Zhou, M., & Cao, J. (2016). High hydrostatic pressure induced physiological changes and physical damages in asparagus spears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 118, 1-10.