Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran


Silverberry fruit is an important medicinal fruit that used for reducing pain. The present work was carried out to study the effect of potassium meta-bisulfite (KMS) and air drying temperature on quality of Russian olive fruit.
Different KMS levels (0, 1, 2 and 4%) and drying temperatures (45, 60 and 75°C) were used and some traits such as weight loss (WL), rehydration ratio (RH-R), TSS (total soluble solids), TA (total acidity), TSS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, color parameters (L*, a*, b*, chroma and Hue, TEPL, TEPa and TEPb, ΔE and BI), total phenol (TP), and potassium were measured. WL, RH-R and total color change (ΔE) increased with increment of pre-treatment concentration. All traits except TSS, were significantly affected by drying temperature. TA, ascorbic acid and TP raised by increasing air temperature from 45°C to 60°C. Temperature higher than 60°C increased ΔE. Increment of temperature from 45°C to 75°C led to an increasing trend of browning index, a*, b* and C* (chroma), however, L* (lightness) and hue angle decreased. In general, using higher KMS concentrations as pre-treatment improved weight loss during drying, however, significant color change observed and color retention significantly reduced. Drying temperature higher than 60°C also increased browning index of Russian olive fruit, however, total phenols increased in parallel. Thus, it is suggested that drying temperatures lower than 60°C may be good treatment for drying silverberry fruits.


  • Higher KMS concentrations as pre-treatment improved weight loss, however, significant color change observed.
  • Drying temperature higher than 60 °C also increased browning index.


Main Subjects

Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel, R., & Ghiafeh Davoodi, M. (2009). Effect of chemical pretreatments and dehydration methods on quality characteristics of tomato powder and its storage stability. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering, 3 (6), 330-339.

AOAC. (2000). Official method of analysis. 17th Ed. Gaithersburg, Md, Association of official analytical chemists.

Asadiar, L. S., Rahmani, F., & Siami, A. (2012). Assessment of genetic variation in Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) based on morphological traits and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Genetic Markers. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6, 1652-1661.

Ashebir, D., Jezik, K., Weingartemann, H., & Gretzmacher, R. (2009). Change in color and other fruit quality characteristics of tomato cultivars after hot-air drying at low final-moisture content. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 60, 308-315.

Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., & Vega-Mercado, H. (1996). Other methods of dehydration of foods and packaging aspects. In Dehydration of foods, Barbosa-Cánovas G.V., Vega-Mercado H. (Eds.), Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 289–320.

Barreiro, J., Milano, M., & Sandoval, A. (1997). Kinetics of colour change of double concentrated tomato paste during thermal treatment. Journal Food Engineering, 33, 359-371.

Batu, A. (2004). Determination of acceptable firmness and color values of tomatoes. Journal Food Engineering, 61, 471–475.

Ben haj said, L., Najjaa, H., Neffati, M., & Bellagha, S. (2013). Color, phenolic and antioxidant characteristic changes of allium roseum leaves during drying. Journal of Food Quality, 36, 403–410.

Bi, J., Chen, Q., Zhou, Y., Liu, X., Wu, X., & Chen, R. (2014). Optimization of short-and medium-wave infrared drying and quality evaluation of jujube powder. Food and Bioprocessing Technology, 7, 2375-2387.

Cansev, A., Sahan, Y., Celik, G., Taskesen, S., & Ozbey, H. (2011). Chemical properties and antioxidant capacity of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. fruits. Asian Journal Chemistry,. 23, 2661-2665.

Chong, C., & Law, C. (2011). Drying of exotic fruits, In Drying of food, vegetables and fruits, (Jangam S., Law C., Mujumdar A. (Eds.). Singapore, 1-42.

Demiray, E., Tulek, Y., & Yilmaz, Y. (2013). Degradation kinetics of lycopene, β-carotene and ascorbic acid in tomatoes during hot air drying. Lwt-Food Science and Technology, 50, 172-176.

Eleyinmi, A. F., Ilelaboye, N. O. A., Aiyeleye, F. B., Akoja, S. S. 2002. Effect of different pre-drying operations on some nutritionally valuable minerals, ascorbic acid and rehydration index of Capsicum species. Tropical and Agricultural. Research Extension,. 5(1 & 2), 57-61.

Ergünes, G., & Tarhan, S. (2006). Color retention of red peppers by chemical pretreatments during greenhouse and open sun drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 76, 446–452.

Ersoy, N., Kalyoncu, I. H., Elidemir, A. Y. & Tolay, I. (2013). Some physico-chemical and nutritional properties of russion olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) fruit grown in Turkey. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, 7, 179-181.

Esmaeili Adabi, M., Nikbakht, A. M., Motevali, A., & Mousavi Seyedi, S. R. (2013). Investigation of black mulberry drying kinetics applying different pretreatments. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 15, 23-34

Fang, S., Wang, Z., Hu, X., & Datta, A. K. (2009). Hot‐air drying of whole fruit chinese jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Miller): Physicochemical properties of dried products. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44, 1415-1421.

Garau, M. C., Simal, S., Rossello, C., & Femenia, A. (2007). Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties of dietary fibre and antioxidant capacity of orange (Citrus aurantium cv. canoneta) by-products. Food Chemistry, 104, 1014-1024.

Jokić, S., Velić, D., Bilić, M., Lukinac, J., Planinić, M., & Bucić-Kojić, A. (2009). Influence of process parameters and pre-treatments on quality and drying kinetics of apple samples. Czech Journal of Food Science, 27 (2), 88–94.

Karimi, G., Hosseinzadeh, H., Rassoulzadeh, M., Razavi, B. M., & Taghiabadi, E. (2010). Antinociceptive effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruits on sciatic nerve ligated mice. Iranian Journal of Basic Medicinal Science, 13, 97-101.

Kaymak-Ertekin, E. (2002). Drying and rehydration kinetics of green and red peppers. Journal of Food Science, 67, 168–175.

Kutyła-Olesiuk, A., Nowacka, M., Wesoły, M., & Ciosek, P. (2013). Evaluation of organoleptic and texture properties of dried apples by hybrid electronic tongue. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, 187, 234-240.

Lee, H. S., & Coates, G. A. (1999). Thermal pasteurization effects on colour of red grapefruit juices. Journal of Food Science, 64, 663-666.

López, J., Uribe, E., Vega-Gálvez, A., Miranda, M., Vergara, J., Gonzalez, E., & Di Scala, K. (2010). Effect of air temperature on drying kinetics, vitamin c, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, non-enzymatic browning and firmness of blueberries variety O Neil. Food and Bioprocessing Technology, 3, 772-777.

Lozano, J. E., & Ibarz, A. (1997). Color changes in concentrated fruit pulp during heating at high temperatures. Journal of Food Engineering,31, 365-373.

Madrau, M. A., Piscopo, A., Sanguinetti, A. M., Del Caro, A., Poiana, M., Romeo, F. V. & Piga, A. (2009). Effect of drying temperature on polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of apricots. European Food Research Technology, 228, 441-448.

Makkar, H. P., Blümmel, M., Borowy, N. K., & Becker, K. (1993). Gravimetric determination of tannins and their correlations with chemical and protein precipitation methods. Journal of Science Food and Agriciculture, 61, 161-165.

Maskan, M. 2001. Kinetics of color change of kiwifruits during hot air and microwave drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 48, 169–175.

McGuire, R. G. (2014). Reporting of objective color measurements. Hortscience, 27, 1254–1255.

Mrad, N. D., Boudhrioua, N., Kechaou, N., Courtois, F., & Bonazzi, C. (2012). Influence of air drying temperature on kinetics, physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and ascorbic acid of pears. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 90, 433-441.

Nóbrega, E. M., Oliveira, E. L., Genovese, M. I., & Correia, R. T. (2014). The impact of hot air drying on the physical‐chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of acerola (Malphigia emarginata) residue. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39, 131-141.

Oliveira, S. M., Ramos, I. N., Brandão, T. R., & Silva, C. L. (2015). Effect of air‐drying temperature on the quality and bioactive characteristics of dried galega kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39(6), 2485-2496.

Palou, E., Lopez-Malo, A., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V., Welti-Chanes, J., & Swanson, B. G. (1999). Polyphenoloxidase activity and color of blanched and high hydrostatic pressure treated banana puree. Journal of Food Science, 64, 42–45.

Pangavhane, D., Sawhney, R., & Sarsavadia, P. (1999). Effect of various dipping pretreatment on drying kinetics of Thompson seedless grapes. Journal of Food Engineering, 39, 211–216.

Patel, S. (2014). Plant genus Elaeagnus: underutilized lycopene and linoleic acid reserve with permaculture potential. Fruits, 70(4), 191-199.

Pathare, P., Opara, U. & Al-Said, F. (2013). Color measurement and analysis in fresh and processed foods: A review. Food Bioprocess Technology, 6, 36–60.

Piga, A., Del Caro, A., & Corda, G. (2003). From plum to prunes: influence of drying parameters on polyphenols and antioxidant activity. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51, 3675-3681.

Prabhanjan, D., Ramaswamy, H., & Raghavan, G. (1995). Microwave-assisted convective air drying of thin layer carrots. Journal of Food Engineering, 25, 283-293.

Prajapati, V. K.,  Prabhat, K. N., & Rathore, S. S. (2011). Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) shreds. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(1), 45–52.

Price, W., Sabarez, H., Storey, R., & Back, P. (2000). Role of the waxi skin layer in moisture loss during dehydration of prunes. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 48, 4193–4198.

Que, F., Mao, L., Fang, X., & Wu, T. (2008). Comparison of hot air‐drying and freeze‐drying on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) flours. Inter. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43, 1195-1201.

Serpen, A., & Gökmen, V. (2007). Reversible degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid under reducing and oxidizing conditions. Food Chemistry, 104, 721-725.

Sigge, G., Hansmann, C., & Joubert, E. (2001). Effect of storage conditions, packaging material and metabisulphite treatment on the color of dehydrated green bell peppers (Capsicum annuum l.). Journal of Food Quality, 24, 205-218.

Vásquez-Parra, J. E., Ochoa-Martínez, C. I., & Bustos-Parra, M. (2013). Effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on the convective drying of cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana). Journal of Food Engineering, 119, 648–654.

Vega-Gálvez, A., Ah-Hen, K., Chacana, M., Vergara, J., Martínez-Monzó, J., García-Segovia, P., Lemus-Mondaca, R., & Di Scala, K. (2012). Effect of temperature and air velocity on drying kinetics, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, colour, texture and microstructure of apple (var. granny smith) slices. Food Chemistry, 132, 51-59.

Vega-Gálvez, A., Di Scala, K., Rodríguez, K., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Miranda, M., López, J., & Perez-Won, M. (2009). Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, colour and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicum annuum var. hungarian). Food Chemistry, 117, 647-653.