Document Type : Original Article


Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran


Purpose: Insect-insecticide interaction, as a dynamic system, increases our knowledge to improve chemical application. Although modes of action in the most insecticides is obvious (direct action) but the other targets which may be affected after treatment are not determined (indirect action). In this study digestive enzymes were considered as potential targets for insecticides. Research method: Some of (three sample) adults that were exposed to the different insecticide concentrations were selected for in vivo analysis. In this part, internal organs (midgut) were homogenates and enzyme activity was determined. On the other hand, in the in vitro assays, nontoxic adults were selected and after dissection of the guts, incubated to the different insecticide manually. Fifty microliters enzyme solution with 450 μl toxic solutions incubated 30 min in the room temperature before enzyme assay. Findings: Twenty hours after exposure to the insecticides, gut of adults were dissected and used for in vivo experiment. Our data showed that there was a significant difference in the enzyme activity among different concentrations of chlorpyriphos. The highest and lowest level of enzyme inhibitory was occurred in the 2000 and 0 ppm (control). There was no significant difference between control (0 ppm) and 300 ppm.  Data in the in vitro experiment showed that enzyme activity was reduced in the toxic concentrations. Trend of enzyme inhibiting that occurred with chlorpyriphos was regular as the highest and lowest inhibiting were observed in the maximum (99.2 %) and minimum concentrations (7.4 %), respectively. Limitations: There is a problem in which how to correlate in vivo and in vitro results to practical toxicology. Originality/Value: Using of new insecticides with new and widespread mode of action can be recommended against postharvest pest in the practical entomology.


Main Subjects

Anwar, K. (2004). Toxic effects of Cypermethrin on the development of muscle in chick embryo of Gallus domesticus. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6, 1-7.

Araujo, A. R., Ferreira, G. H., Oliveria, M. G. A., & Guedesm, R. N. C. (2006). Enzyme activity of the energy-metabolism of pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais). 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection. PS 4-2- 6211.

Baker, J. E. (1988). Development of four strains of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on barley, corn (maize), rice, and wheat. Journal of Stored Product Research, 24, 98-193.

Baker, J. E., Woo, S. M., & Byrd, R. V. (1983). Ultrastructural features of the gut of Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with notes on distribution of proteinases and amylases in crop and midgut. Journal of Canadian Zoology, 62, 1251-1259.

Barbehenn, R. V. (2002). Gut-based antioxidant enzymes in a polyphagous and a graminivorous grasshopper. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 28, 1329-1347.

Boyd, D. W. (2003). Digestive enzymes and styletmorphology of Deraecoris nigritulus (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Miridae) reflect adaptions for predatory habits. Annual Entomological Society of America, 96, 667-671.[0667:deasmo];2

Critchley, B. R. (1998). Literature review of sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae). Crop Protection, 17, 271-287.

Eraslan, G., Bilgili, A., Essiz, D., Akdogan, M., & Shahindokuyucu, F. (2007). The effects of deltamethrin on some serum biochemical parameters in mice. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 87, 123-130.

Gunes, E., & Yerli, S. V. (2011). Effects of Deltamethrin on lipase activity in guppies (Poecilia reticulate). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11, 473-476.

Habibi, J., Courdon, T. A., Backus, E. A., Brandt, S. L., Wagner, R. M., Wright, M. K., &  Huesing, J. E. (2008). Morphology and histology of the alimentary canal of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha: Miridae). Annual Entomological Society of America, 101, 159-171.[159:mahota];2

Hernandez-Vera, G., Toseveski, I., Caldara, R., & Emerson, B. C. (2019).  Evolution of host plant use and diversification in a species complex of parasitic weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of life and Enviromental Science, PeerJ: 7-e6625.

Horne, I., Haritos, V. S., & Oakeshott, J. G. (2009). Comparative and functional genomics of lipases in holometabolous insects. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 39, 547-567.

Javaheri, M., Scheafer, C. W., & Lattin, J. D. (2009). Shield bugs (Scutelleridae). In Heteroptera of economic importance (Scheafer C Panizzi W ed.). Washington, USA: CRC Press. 457-503.

Jouanian, L., Bonade-Bottino, M., Giard, C., Morrot, G., & Giband, M. (1998). Transgenic plants for insect resistance. Plant Science, 131, 1-11.

Kunieda, T., Fujiyuki, T., Kucharski, R., Foret, S., Ament, S. A., Toth, A. L., Ohashi, K., Takeushi, H., Kamikuochi, A., Kage, E., Morioka, A., Bey, M., Kubo, T., Robinson, G. E., & Malaeszka, R. (2006). Carbohydrate metabolism genes and pathways in insects: insights from the honey bee genome. Insect Molecular Biology, 15, 563-576.

Liu, J., Zheng, S., Liu, L., Li, L., & Feng, Q. (2010). Protein profiles of the midgut of Spodoptera litura at the sixth instars feeding stage by shutgun ESI-MS approach. Journal of Proteome Research, 9(5), 2117-2147.

Omar, Y. M. M. (2012). Morphological studies on some external and internal structures of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzea, a major pest pf the stored cereals in Egypt. Journal of Plant Protection and Pathology, 3, 843-863.

Pauchet, Y., Muck, A., Heckel, D. G., & Preiss S. (2008). Mapping the larval midgut lumen proteome of Helicoverpa armigera, a generalist herbivourous insect. Journal of Proteome Research, 7, 1629-1639.

Perez-Mendoza, J., Throne, J. E., & Baker, J. E. (2004). Ovarian physiology and age-grading in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Product Research, 40, 179-196.

Quistad, B. G., Liang, S. N., Fisher, K. J., Nomura, D. K., & Casida, J. E. (2006). Each lipase has a unique sensitivity profile for organophosphorus inhibitors. Toxicological Science, 91, 166-172.

Saadati, M., & Allahyari, H. (2018). Toxicology in vitro: The study of biochemical effects of   Fenitrithion and Fenvalerate on the enzyme activity. Journal of pesticides and Bio-fertilizers, 1, 1-5.

Saadati, M., Farshbaf Pourabad, R., Golmohammadi, G., & Sadeghi, H. (2008). Some properties of α-amylase in the salivary gland of Eurygaster integriceps. Munis Entomology and Zoology, 3, 733-744.

Saadati, M., Farshbaf Pourabad, R., Toorchi, M., Zarghami, N., & Komatsu, S. (2012a). Protein patterns in salivary gland of sunn est, Eurygaster integriceps (put.) (Hem: Scutelleridae). Turkish Journal of Entomology, 36, 71-80.

Saadati, M., Farshbaf Pourabad, R., Valizade, M., & Yazdanian, M. (2007). Effects of some mineral compounds on the salivary α-amylase activity of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps. Turkish Journal of Entomology, 31, 163-173.

Saadati, M., & Mirzaei, M. (2016). Insecticide-enzyme interaction: cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, diazinon and deltamethrin with α-amylase and lipase in the gut of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps. Biological Systems, 5, 1-5.

Saadati, M., Toorchi, M., Farshbaf Pourabad, R., & Zarghami, N. (2012b). Protein map of gut in adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Put.) (Hem: Scutelleridae): two-dimensional electrophoresis technique. Munis Entomology and Zoology, 7, 229-237.

Saadati, M., Toorchi, M., Farshbaf Pourabad, R., Zarghami, N., Nouri, M., & Komatsu, S. (2012c). Proteome analysis of gut and salivary gland proteins of fifth-instar nymph and adults of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 81, 105-119.

Saxena, K. N. (1963). Mode of ingestion in a heteropterous insect Dysdercus koenigii (F.) (Pyrrohocoridae). Journal of Insect Physiology, 9, 47-71.

Sharma, R., Komatsu, S., & Noda, H. (2004). Proteomic analysis of brown plant hopper: application to the study of carbamate toxicity. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 34, 425-432.

Sorkhabi-Abdolmaleki, S., Zibaei, A., Hoda, H., & Fazeli Dinan, M. (2014). Purification and characterization of midgut α-amylase in a predatory bug, Andralus spinidens. Journal of Insect Science, 14, 65-73.

Veerapan, M., Hwang, I., & Pandurangan, M. (2012). Effect of cypermethrin, carbendazim and their combination on male albino rat serum. International Journal of Experimental Pathology, 93, 361-369.